A psychological myth is different from an aetiological myth because a psychological myth does not try to explain one thing by way of something else (such as lightning and thunder can be explained by Zeus’ anger). Creation Myths; Myths of Gods and Goddesses; Trickster Myths; Myths of Death, the Underworld and Resurrection Here are some examples: 1. Myths may fit in more than one category. A fictitious story, person, or thing: But we don’t want to ignore the theoretical study of myth entirely, so we will limit ourselves to discussing only three types of myth. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Finally, there are myths of CREATION. 2. The simplest figure of speech is the SIMILE. Okay so Eliot categorized these myths into four types. There are, therefore, almost as many cosmogonic myths as there are human cultures. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Origin myths describe the beginnings of a custom, name or object. Creation myth - Creation myth - Types of cosmogonic myths: The world as a structure of meaning and value has not appeared in the same manner to all human civilizations. This is of course contestable, as the Myth that fits neatly within the contours of any academic designation is very rare. Heroes are usually the protagonists of many myths and legends, and can be gods or humans, depending on the story. 3. I've put in bold the key words that I find usesful: nature, deities & humans, religions, and science. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Ritual myths explain the performance of certain religious practices or patterns and associated with temples or centers of worship. I had no idea there were so many different types of creation myths. The numerous and diverse theories form a spectrum of comparative mythology. A figure of speech is a departure from the normal patterns of language for the purpose of emphasizing something. How did they get there? This is of course contestable, as the Myth that fits neatly within the contours of any academic designation is very rare. List of creation myths; List of legendary creatures by type; List of mythology books and sources; List of mythological objects; List of culture heroes; List of world folk-epics; Lists of deities; Lists of legendary creatures; National myth; Mythopoeia Rather, all of these explanations had meaning for the ancient Greeks, who told them in order to help them understand their world. Oral Tradition and Myth: Cultural Connections. Why are there so many versions of Greek myths? Mythology Unbound: An Online Textbook for Classical Mythology by Jessica Mellenthin and Susan O. Shapiro is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The seventh category of cosmogonic myths, in which two Gods create the world through cooperation or competition occurs frequently in African and Native American mythic tradition Deus Faber The eighth category of creation myths presents the creator as a deus faber, the Maker God--the quintessential architects, artisan, or craftsperson Myths Directions: Choose two examples for each type of myth and identify the pieces of literature, such as a Shakespeare play, in which the examples are found. I will say I think I prefer the myths where humanity is not created from bodily fluids, though. In fact, there are many different types of religion, but for purposes of simplicity I would like to divide the religions of the world into two types: revealed religion and philosophical religion. Types of Myths Banshee Other Irish mythology stories relating to the Banshee say that she is the ghost of a young girl that suffered a brutal death and her spirit remains to warn family members that a violent death is imminent. (Etymology is the study of word origins.) A fiction or half-truth, especially one that forms part of an ideology. Usually the elements such as the Classical four. When studying what a myth actually is, scholars struggle to identify an actual definition because there is a high level of similarities between myths across different cultures, dating way back to ancient times. In many ways, it was easier for ancient civilizations to believe that the world was created by unseen gods or creatures, than face a series of unknown questions. Other functions are more subtle, such as communicating anxieties and unrest within the collective unconscious and, perhaps the most interesting and insightful function of rationalising psychological behaviours and impulsions. As we all know, almost all type of literature is available in written form. For example, you could explain the Greek religious ritual of the Eleusinian Mysteries by saying that they originated when the Greek goddess, Demeter, came down to the city of Eleusis and taught the people how to worship her. Creation myths didn't necessarily emerge so civilizations could provide detailed accounts of their history. Below we look at truth from a number of different perspectives, offering insight into “what we can know” and “how we can know it” as it pertains to Truth in its different forms. Types of legends according to the main element 1- Hero, heroine or historical character . Psychological myths try to explain why we feel and act the way we do. A person overcome by their emotions or other such compulsions, may have been deemed helpless under the thrall of, or even temporarily inhabited by, the appropriated entity. These stories were meant to offer reasonable explanations; therefore, the audience believed these stories to be true. What are the characteristics of myths? The myths about the Trojan War, including the Iliad and the Odyssey, could be classified as historical myths. It is worth noting however, that gods and their actions, communications and general involvement of the affairs of humankind are visible across all types of Myth. Such stories have ancient origins; therefore, they did not have the scientific explanations that we do today for such phenomena a… Whilst retaining ‘call-backs’ to etiological and divine myth, heroic myths appear less concerned with unexplained physical phenomena, as they are with social commentary and psychological exploration. A natural aetiological myth explains an aspect of nature. These are the different types or rituals performed by various groups. Greek Myths Start studying 5 Different Types of Myths. Nature myths attempt to explain natural occurrences, such as weather and cosmology. It can be a creation myth, a nature myth, or a story of a hero's journey. This is however, often very apparent in the second type of myth explored here. For example, you could explain lightning and thunder by saying that Zeus is angry. References, Blackwell C W, Hackney Blackwell A, 2002, ‘Mythology For Dummies’, Wiley, Indiana, Meineck P, 2004, ‘Classical Mythology: The Greeks’, The Modern Scholar, purchased from http://www.audible.co.uk, http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/greek-mythology/images/11941596/title/charon-wallpaper, http://www.cgfeedback.com/cgfeedback/showthread.php?t=2963, http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/odyssey1/ss/062508POdyssey_6.htm Myth is a traditional story of our historical past that presents a world view.It is believed to be true and sacred.It is a narrative form describing the processes of origin and … The Trojan War did occur, but the famous characters that we know from the Iliad and the Odyssey (Agamemnon, Achilles, Hector, etc.) Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. They are explanations that have meaning for us as human beings. What I'll be doing next is incorporating these four categories into my personal mythology, which will be a permanent page on this blog that can be accessed from the home page. ( Log Out /  Heroic myths are certainly not devoid of divine intervention, but are centred around the actions of mortal human characters who, more often than not, are descendants of the gods. From a very early period, Greek myths seem to have been open to criticism and alteration on grounds of morality or of misrepresentation of known facts. ————————————————————————————————————————————, Tagged as Allegory, Collective Unconscious, Cosmology, Creation, Etiological Myth, Fable, Folktales, Heroic Myth, Natural Phenomena, Psychology, Ritual, Society. Cult myths are often seen as explanations for elaborate festivals that magnify the power of the deity. They often interpret how mankind came to inherit the earth as it was (known as Cosmogony), or how humans first came into being. What’s your blood type? If you’re like most Americans, you probably don’t know off the top of your head. In a psychological myth, the emotion itself is seen as a divine force, coming from the outside, that can directly influence a person’s emotions. In fact, there are several entire theories of myth. We will now look into fiction and non-fiction literature as two major types of literature, and also consider the … ( Log Out /  The gods themselves are often characters in myths, and while they can be heroes in some … Furthermore, the myths themselves are much more interesting than the theories. Folktales are less inclined to explore and explain relationships between humans, the natural world and the divine. Myths of the ages of the world. When someone said or did something that they did not want to do, the ancient Greeks might say that Aphrodite “made them” do it. All three of these explanations are not true: Zeus’ anger is not the correct explanation for lightning and thunder; Aphrodite’s name was not actually derived from the Greek word aphros; and Demeter did not establish her own religious rituals in the town of Eleusis. Blood type is a genetic trait that is determined by your parents, just like eye color or ear shape. A natural aetiological myth explains an aspect of nature. There are three subtypes of aetiological myths: natural, etymological, and religious. This might be a good time to cheekily hint that, if you like, you can follow my blog and receive email notifications each time I post. ( Log Out /  They are explanations that have meaning for us as human beings. ———————————————————————————————————————————— I think I'd feel a bit weird to know I came from someone's sweat. Audio Course: Peter Meineck, ‘Classical Mythology: The Greeks’. But we don’t want to ignore the theoretical study of myth entirely, so we will limit ourselves to discussing only three types of myth. there are certain rites and rituals of initiation, in which the seeker or aspirant must partake in, in order to join. Reading comprehension - ensure that you draw the most important information from the related literature lesson From stuff like the legend of King Arthur and his magic BFF to the mischievous gods of Ancient Greece to the insane epics of Hindu mythology, just about every culture comes with a set of stories that most other cultures call foreign or strange.. In many cases it is a historical character whose exploits were exaggerated and magnified with the passage of the years. Deities are ascribed characteristics that associate them with specific phenomena, allowing people to interpret what they see around them as a reflection of that deities’ will, temperament or actions. The first is that the world starts from chaos or nothingness. Historical myths are told about a historical event, and they help keep the memory of that event alive. For example, you could explain lightning and thunder by saying that Zeus is angry. Creation myths fall into five general categories. These categories however, tend to be informed by what many scholars have attempted to identify as the functional purpose of Myth. In this type of legends, the most outstanding element is a hero or a heroine. ( Log Out /  Accretion or conjunction creation myths Accretion or conjunction myths involve inanimate matter coming together to form the world. The theoretical study of myth is very complex; many books have been written about theories of myth, and we could have an entire class just on theories of myth (without studying any of the myths themselves). There may be many obvious examples I could refer to, but until I’ve explored and posted about them, I’d rather not get ahead of myself. In Greek mythology, some of the most powerful gods and goddesses were associated with the weather. For example, the goddess, Aphrodite, is sometimes seen as the power of erotic love. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Myths include gods and/or goddesses, and these figures often have supernatural powers. They function rather to entertain, communicate instructional information and teach a moralistic lesson through allegory, in the manor of fables. The word aetiological is from the Greek word aetion (αἴτιον) meaning “reason” or “explanation”. As a general rule, Myths that attempted to rationalise natural or psychological phenomena in the absence of scientific exploration seem best represented by this category. A religious aetiological myth explains the origin of a religious ritual. They were used as a means of understanding their current condition. Myths can be organised into three broad categories; etiological, heroic and folk tales. Zeus, the king of the Greek gods, was also the god of thunder, lightning, clouds and rain. There are many myths that recur around the world, such as creation myths, myths about the origin of fire, and flood myths. For this reason, this textbook will not say very much about the theories of myth. Here are a few common features that myths typically share: 1. There are many related categories in … Myth is a fictional story, tends to have a hero or event to justify a social preamble. For this reason, this textbook will not say very much about the theories of myth. Similarly, a person may be elevated beyond mortal ability when imbued or influenced by divine power. It’s my intention to outline the three broad types of Myth here, and return to create links to posts that represent strong examples. I have briefly explored some of these in previous posts, such as the ability to define society or cultural identity and explain natural phenomena. These categories however, tend to be informed by what many scholars have attempted to identify as the functional purpose of Myth. I suppose it shows just how diverse the people on each continent are. Approaching myths with a knowledge of these categories in mind however, may help deconstruct their intentions, therefore communicating both an understanding of the circumstances and times in which they were formed and an exposition of some longstanding issues that people continue to grapple with today. Ironically, in historical myths, the accuracy is lost but meaning is gained. A story, a theme, an object, or a character regarded as embodying an aspect of a culture. The second type has the ___4___ start from a cosmic egg. What are the four main types of writing in the old testament? Myths include an explanation for how something came to be in the world. It may be argued the the more grounded in realism a tale may be, the more apt it is to consider it Legend rather than Myth. There are Myths that also allude to either the early days of a utopian human existence, preceding the afflictions of disease, death and suffering, or the existence of an afterlife, that also capture an essence of the divine. Religion is a combination of beliefs, and myths that helps draw attention of followers. A star whose fame turns him or her into a myth. The problem with theories of myth, however, is that they are not very good; they don’t do a great job of explaining the myths or in helping us understand them. Etiological Myths are concerned with the divine, specifically, themes of creation and the actions of divine beings. A creation myth. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Aetiological myths (sometimes spelled etiological) explain the reason why something is the way it is today. Some sects practice one or all different types of these rituals.. Initiation: Into any group, organization, cult, etc. There are four main blood types (A, B, O, and AB), and they are determined by theRead more Furthermore, the myths themselves are much more interesting than the theories. We explore the nature of truth, the different types of truth, and the different types of entities who report truth to better understand the nature of information. Please note that the reasons given in an aetiological myth are NOT the real (or scientific) reasons. An etymological aetiological myth explains the origin of a word. I see these as broad categories. Types of myths Culture(s) that developed myths Oral tradition of myths Skills Practiced. Aetiological Myths probably did not exist. This is not to suggest that they do not involve mythical creatures, magic, powerful artefacts and the like, as these elements can make for some of the most entertaining stories there are. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/odyssey1/ss/062508POdyssey_6.htm. Etiological Myths are chiefly set in the age of the gods, before the time of humans. 1. Because of their religious nature, these myths are considered __3__. Sallustius divided myths into five categories: theological; physical (or concerning natural law); animistic (or concerning soul); material; and; mixed, which concerns myths that show the interaction between two or more of the previous categories and are particularly used in initiations. It is common for the protagonist of a Folk tale to demonstrate great wit and cunning in order to survive perilous situations or encounters with terrible creatures that represent some kind of social anxiety or concern. Oral and written literature are the two major forms of literature. Beneath each of Campbell's four categories, I'll be detailing the myths, artistic objects, scientific concepts, and philosophies that enrich my life and provide me with my own functioning, living mythology. There are many types of mythology characters, much as there are many types of characters in other stories, though a few general categories can include most of these figures. Where did this all begin? Myths cross the lines of science, nature, religion, and explanations of the powers of the universe. Myths are often told as if they were factual. These myths explain how the world and its people came to be. In some cases, as heroic myths are concerned with mortals and their burgeoning civilisation, they have a tendency towards historical recollections of actual or potentially true events; without dispensing fully with what we may describe in modern literature as the paranormal. Myths can be organised into three broad categories; etiological, heroic and folk tales. Numerous myths, whether people consider them sacred or historical, involve explanations of weather and the universe. No matter where you’re from, you probably have your fair share of wild myths. Myths and Legends A Look at the Main Types of Mythological Stories. For example, you could explain the name of the goddess, Aphrodite, by saying that she was born in sea-foam, since aphros is the Greek word for sea-foam. Among them are the cosmogonics, which tell the creation of the world, the anthropogenic, who talk about the emergence of man and eschatological, which tell how the end of the world. There are actually many different types of myth, not just three. In the Works and Days, Hesiod makes use of a scheme of Four … From providing explanations of the world in etiological myth, exploring relationships between mankind and the divine, or preserving history through heroic myth, to demonstrating a social imperative through Folktales; Myths clearly serve a variety of recognisable and discrete purposes.Yet as myths may contain combinations and elements of all three categories discussed here, it may be frustrating or seem counterproductive to become too focused on setting out boundaries and distinctions. There are many types of myths, which are classified according to the story they tell. Parallel to this ‘tangible’ interpretation of divine intervention, is the concept of human behaviour, action and emotion presided over by a custodial, divine being. These elements are presented through some surprisingly specific and recognisable motifs and act metaphorically to communicate themes such as personal development or rights of passage. A lot of oral literature too has been made available in the form of books. These two categories are not exclusive, and many religions overlap both categories, but I think it is a useful conceptual divide. Mythology Unbound: An Online Textbook for Classical Mythology, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The Pueblo believed they began life underground and were guided by a spirit to climb up through a hole int… There are three subtypes of aetiological myths:  natural, etymological, and religious. An etymological aetiological myth explains the origin of Their divine lineage marks out these characters as heroes in their time, representing the best of humanity in terms of skill and ability, especially when concerned with fighting and combat. This type of myth avoids any purposeful action of a god or intelligent being. Change ). Allegory, in which the seeker or aspirant what are the categories or types of myths partake in, in the! 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